Norway, Norwegian Ships, Navigation

The last leg of the evasion of Tom Applewhite was hidden in the propeller shaft compartment of a Norwegian ship, The Lisbeth, which sailed from Seville to Gibraltar carrying a cargo of bitter oranges destined for a marmalade producer in Liverpool.  The captain of  The Lisbeth was Einar Apeland of Haugesund, Norway.  A good source of information on the role of the Norwegian merchant fleet during WWII is to be found at:, Hans Christian and Per Klem, Blood on the Midnight Sun, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1964.  (German occupation of Norway.)

  • Atkinson, Neill, Hell or High Water, New Zealand Merchant Seafarers Remember the War, Auckland, NZ: HarperCollinsPublishers, 2005.  (Pp. 222-231 are about Norwegian sailor and ships.)
  • Barker, Ralph, Blockade Busters, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1976.
  • Beamish, Derek, Harold Bennett, and John Hillier, Poole and World War II, Poole, England: Poole Historical Trust, 1980.  (Capt. Apeland rented a room in Poole during the war.)
  • Bennett, G. Harry and Roy, Survivors: British Merchant Seamen in the SecondWorld War, London: The Hambledon Press, 1999.
  • Bowditch, Nathaniel, American Practical Navigation, Washington, D.C.: Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Center, 1977, vol. 1.
  • Bjørkelund, Leif M. and E.H. Kongshavn, Våre Gamle Skip, Haugesund: Lokalhistorisk stiftelse, 1996.
  • Bristow, Desmond,  A Game of Moles, The Deceptions of an MI6 Officer, London: Little, Brown and Co. (UK), 1993.
  • Conway, Martin and Gotovitch, José (eds.), Europe in Exile, European Exile Communities in Britain 1940-1945, New York: Berghahn Books, 2001. (Contains chapters on Norwegians, Belgians, and Dutch in exile.)
  • Cooper, Capt. Dick, The Adventures of a Secret Agent, London: Frederick Muller, Ltd., 1957.  (Has references  to a Seville-Gibraltar escape.)
  • Course, A.G., The Deep Sea Tramp, London: Hollis & Carter, no date (1959 or later).
  • Edwards, Bernard, The Merchant Navy Goes to War, London: Robert Hale, 1989.
  • Gjelsvik, Tore, Norwegian Resistance, 1940-1945, London: C. Hurst & Co., 1979.
  • Halstead, Ivor, Heroes of the Atlantic, London: Lindsay Drummond, 1941.
  • Hegland, Jon Rustung, Nortraships Flate (vols. I and II), Oslo: Dreyers Forlag, 1976.
  • Howarth, David, We Die Alone, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955.
  • Howarth, David, The Shetland Bus, New York: The Lyons Press, 2001.
  • Helmersen, Hanna Aasvik, War and Innocence, a Young Girl’s Life in Occupied Norway (1940-1945), Seattle: Hara Publishing, 2000.
  • Hurd, Sir Archibald, Britain’s Merchant Navy, London: Odhams Press Ltd., n.d. (probably 1942 or 1943).
  • Jordan, Roger W., The World’s Merchant Fleets 1939, the Particulars and Wartime Fates of 6,000 Ships, Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1999.
  • Kramish, Arnold, The Griffin, the Greatest Untold Espionage Story of World War II, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
  • Kurzmann, Dan, Blood and Water, Sabotaging Hitler’s Bomb, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.
  • Latham, Robert F., Introduction to Marine Engineering, Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute, 1958.
  • Lehmkuhl, Dik., Journey to London, The Story of the Norwegian Government at War, London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1946.
  • Lindbaek, Lise (trans. by Nora Solum), Norway’s New Saga of the Sea, the Story of Her Merchant Marine, New York: Exposition Press, 1969.
  • Littlejohn, David, The Patriotic Traitors, the History of Collaboration in German-Occupied Europe, 1940-45, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1972.
  • Osborne, Brian D., and Ronald Armstrong, Glasgow, A City at War, Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2005.
  • Myklebost, Tor, They Came as Friends, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1943.
  • Osborne, Brian D. and Ronald Armstrong, The Clyde at War, Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2005.
  • Petersen, Kaare, The Saga of Norwegian Shipping, Oslo: Dreyers Forlag, 1955.  (Contains material on Nortraship, the Norwegian agency in charge of Norwegian shipping during WWII.)
  • Petrow, Richard, The Bitter Years, the Invasion and Occupation of Denmark and Norway, April 1940-May 1945, New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 1979.
  • Rings, Werner, Life with the Enemy, Collaboration and Resistance in Hitler’s Europe 1939-1945, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1982.
  • Salmon, Patrick (ed.), Britain and Norway in the Second World War, London: HMSO, 1995.
  • Salvesen, Sylvia, Forgive–But Do Not Forget, London: Hutchison & Co., 1958. The author’s experiences in Ravensbruck.
  • Sømme, Sven, Another Man’s Shoes, Clifton-upon-Teme, Worcestershire, U.K.: Polperro Heritage Press, 2005.
  • Spiller, H.J., Ticket to Freedom, Wellingborough, England: William Kimber, 1988.  (Contains material on an escape via Seville.)
  • Thomas, Nigel, Hitler’s Blitzkrieg Enemies 1940, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands & Belgium, Oxford: Osprey Publishing 2014.
  • Wachsman, Z.H., Trail Blazers for Invasion, NY: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1943.

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