Sources Consulted

Archives, Libraries, Museums, and Other Sources Consulted in Researching WWII Escape and Evasion


        Algemeen Rijksarchief Brussel/Archives générales du Royaume Bruxelles (Royal Archives)

        Antwerp Tram and Bus Museum

        Belgian General Intelligence and Security Service, Security Division, Section Archives (Belgian Army)

        Belgian Service des Victimes de la Guerre (Service for Victims of the War)

        Belgian Sûreté de l’Etat (Belgian State Security)

        Jewish Museum, Brussels

        Mechelem Museum for Deportation & Resistance, Belgium, Mechelen (Malines)

        Office des Etrangers, Service Public Fédéral Intérieur

        SNCB (Belgian Railway) Archives and Photothèque, Brussels

        SOMA-CEGES (Centre for Historical Research and Documentation on War and

Contemporary Society), Brussels


        Institut d’histoire du temps present, Paris


        Gibraltar Archives, Gibraltar

Lloyd’s of London Gibraltar office


        Brandenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv, Potsdam, Germany

Intl. Tracing Service, Arolsen (now the Arolsen Archives, International Center on Nazi Persecution)

        Kurt Tucholsky Literaturmuseum, Schloss Rheinsberg, Germany

        Mann- und Gedenkstätten Ravensbruck

        Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora


        Yad Vashem, Jerusalem


        Amalia van Solms Historical Society, Baarle-Nassau

        Bibliothecaris Regionaal Archief Leiden

        Dutch Ministry of Defense, Kerkrade

        Dutch Red Cross Archives, The Hague

        Gemeentearchief Enschede

        Gemeentearchief Rotterdam

        International Institute for Social History

        Jonkers, David – personal papers

        Leiden University Library

        Marechaussee Museum, Buren, The Netherlands

        Nationaal Archief, The Hague

        Netherlands Institute for Military History, The Hague

        Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, Hilversum

        Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIOD), Amsterdam

        Regionaal Archief Nijmegen

        Regionaal Archief Tilburg

        Stichting 1940-45, Amsterdam

        University of Utrecht Medical Library

        Verzetsmuseum (Resistance Museum), Amsterdam

        Willemsen, Wim – personal papers


        Bergen Maritime Museum, Bergen, Norway

        Haugesund, Norway Folkebibliotek

        National Archives of Norway, Oslo


        Seville Port Authority, Seville, Spain

United Kingdom

        Cambridge University Library, Templeton Papers (Samuel Hoare, British

Ambassador to Spain)

        Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Records & Historical Dept., London

        Guildhall Library, London

        Imperial War Museum, London

Lloyd’s Marine Intelligence Unit, Essex, U.K.

        Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool

        National Archives (formerly the Public Record Office), Kew, London

        National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England

United States

Air Force Historical Research Agency (AFHRA), Maxwell AFB, Texas

        Basque Studies Library, University of Nevada at Reno

        Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum, Savannah, Georgia

        National Archives II (NARA), College Park, Maryland

        Steinway Archive, New York

        U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center, U.S. Army Military

                History Institute, Carlisle, PA

Other Sources Used

  1. Correspondence with airmen, helpers, their families.
  2. Personal interviews with airmen and helpers, e.g., Tom Applewhite, Amanda Stassart, Charlotte Ambach.
  3. Memoirs of helpers and airmen, e.g., marechaussee Huub Meeuwisse, airmen Jack Justice and Stan Munns.
  4. Interviews by other sources: radio, TV, historical archives, historical societies, Shoah Foundation.
  5. Histories of the Resistance and of Dutch towns during WWII.
  6. Books about airmen’s escapes.
  7. On-site examination of hiding places for airmen and escape routes.
  8. Newspaper accounts.
  9. Telephone databases for locating individuals or their families.
  10. Other escape line specialists.
  11. Requests for assistance posted on organization newsletters, e.g., De Schakel, publication of the Engelandvaarders Association, and All Generations for Holocaust Survivors and the Generations After
  12. Maps and aerial photographs.

Disposition of my research files: In December 2019, I donated all my research files to the McDermott Library at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. They will be found as MS 71, PROC: 2020, JUNE under the name of Bruce Bolinger and consist of 112 boxes, 10 oversized folders, and 8 books. See