Luctor et Emergo/Fiat Libertas

To explain the organizational structure of Luctor et Emergo/Fiat Libertas, I have inserted an organization chart which I found at the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (NIOD) in Amsterdam.  It most likely was created by the SD (Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS).   My thanks to Joke Folmer for alerting me that such a chart existed.  Note the German legend in the lower right corner with its system of symbols identifying which members of the organization were part of (1) the escape network for Allied airmen, (2) the espionage (intelligence) network) or (3) Dutch agents parachuted in by London, and (4) which had been arrested.     That chart is then followed by a computer-generated chart with the same information but with simplified lines, colors in place of symbols, and numbers in place of names.  My thanks to Louise Jones for creating it for me.  The last item below is a list of the members of the organization in order by the numbers in their boxes on the computer-generated chart and with more information about each person to the extent that I have it.  (Note that Joke Folmer’s name, mispelled as “Volmer,” appears in the box I have numbered as 33.)  To view an enlargement of either chart, just click on it.  The date of the chart is unknown but probably can approximately be determined by the dates of arrest of those shown as having been arrested.    According to a report by Jan Wannee, Nel Lind was arrested on 27 Sept. 1943, with his own arrest coming two days later.  Joke Folmer’s arrest was in April 1944.  Canadian researcher Michael LeBlanc has examined the names and given me the benefit of his experience.  His comments will appear as “ML:” followed by his comment in italics.

Original Organization Chart of Luctor et Emergo/Fiat Libertas

Luctor et Emergo Fiat Libertas Organization Chart (jpg)

Explanation of Names

BoxNo. The names listed below in boldface are as they appear on the original  diagram (see above) as best I can determine them after talking with native Dutch- and German-speakers. German words are translated into English when possible.  References to “Stepping Stones” are to the book Stepping Stones to Freedom by Bob de Graaff, originally published as Schakels naar de vrijheid, 1995.  Note the circle in the upper right corner of both charts enclosing the initials “OD.”  This is probably a reference to the O.D., the Orde Dienst, or Order Service.  According to Warner Warmbrunn in his book, The Dutch Under German Occupation, 1940-1945, 1963, pp. 186-187, the O.D. was the “oldest important resistance group that managed to maintain an organization throughout the occupation.”  Organized along military lines, most of its members were commissioned or noncommissioned officers.  After some involvement in sabotage at the beginning of the war, it mainly engaged in military espionage for the remainder of the war, according to Warmbrunn.  Jan Wannee’s connection to the OD may have been related to the espionage network under Henriette Roosenburg.
1 Wannee, J.C. (According to Stepping Stones, p. 82, this would be Jan C. [“Jan Dijkstra”] Wannée from The Hague.)
2 Guillard, Bob.  Now in England.
3 Heintje II ["Hein" is a Dutch first name and "Heintje" would be the diminutive form.  "Heintje"   is also a Prussian family name.  This simply may be a designation for a parachuted agent whose name they did not know or only knew as "Heintje."]
4 Heintje I [Same as above.]
5 heere heere [Is this a reference to military personnel or is it related to the Dutch word, "heer," meaning "mister?"]
6 Gerbrands, Piet (According to Stepping Stones, pp. 84 and 86, Piet Gerbrands was the 2nd agent from Dutch Intelligence.  Also known as “Kees Verhoef.”)  According to Frans Kluiters Dutch Agents 1940-1945 at , Gerbrands was an agent of MI6 sent in to organize an escape line.
7 Carlier, Gerard.  Now in England. (Spelling confirmed from Stepping Stones)
8 Hals, Frans  This was Dignus ‘Dick’ Kragt who operated in the area of Apeldoorn.  See also Frans Kluiters Dutch Agents 1940-1945 at which says Kragt was “Frans Hals.”  Kragt was an MI9 agent sent in to organize an escape line.
9 Lind, Nel. (Nelly Elisabeth Lind)
10 Gerbrands, Adrie (Stepping Stones, p. 84, confirms that his first name is Adrie and that he was the brother of Piet Gerbrands.  Note the line connecting them.)
11 Roosenburg, Henr, (Henriette) (Jet)  [After the war she wrote the book, The Walls Came Tumbling Down.]
12 Jonkers, Alb. (The “Alb.” probably stands for “Albert.”)
13 Kloeg, Peter (of Rotterdam).  ML: Was this Father Kloeg, who was connected to the Wert Passage and helped Comete airman Angus McLean, RCAF?  Arrested April 1943.  Shot 15 March 1944 in Utrecht.  Associated with the name of David Renier.
14 Bijl, Dr.  ML: This may be Dr. Frederick Bijl, aka ‘Maurice.”
15 Westhoff, Dr.
16 Sonsberk (or Sonsbeck, Sansbeck, or Sansbeek, etc.  If the Germans misunderstood the name, this might be “Sonsberg,” a Dutch family name.)
17 De Bruin, Gerrit [The letters "ui"are a common combination in Dutch names.]
18 Drukker, Fyel? or Fhel? — This has to be Marretje Henriette Drukker-Lind, wife of Dr. Jan Drukker and sister of Nel Lind.
19 v. Schottinga, Terwische? [The “Schottinga” could have been a misunderstood spelling of “Schettinge,” “Schetttinga,” or “Schuitinga.”  The last of these is a Frisian name.  Some Frisian names have a “ga” ending.  The “Terwische” might be an Old Frisian name.
20 Piet
21 Holder, Ten (?) [Judging from names in boxes 12, 19, and 43 , the first name here appears to begin with a “T” rather than a “J” as I originally thought.
22 v. d. Brandt [probably van den Brandt]
23 Brumans, Prof. (Stepping Stones, p. 84, refers to Prof. Ch. V. J. Brummans, a teacher.)
24 Bergmans, Toine (According to Stepping Stones, p. 85, this is probably L.F.J. “Twan” Bergmans from Bree, Belgium.  “Twan” would be an unfamiliar name to Germans, increasing the risk of their misspelling it.)
25 Bergmans, Fonds (According to Stepping Stones, p. 85, this is “Alfons” [“Oom Fons”], uncle of “Twan” Bergmans.  He ran a pastry bakery and café in Bree, Belgium.  In Aug. 1943, he went underground as “Alfons Mathijse” in Weert.)
26 v.d. Meulen, — (of Zwaagwesteinde)  [The name is probably “van den Meulen” or “van de Meulen.’
27 ten Zijthoff (Mrs. ten Zijthoff, Hengelo)
28 Hoogland.  ML: There is a Hoogland near Amersfoort.
29 De Rijk,
30 Graafhuis, Bob (of Amersfoort)  (According to Stepping Stones, p. 84, this probably is Wubbo Graafhuis.)
31 Waller (H. Waller of Driebergen.)
32 Bosboom, H. (According to Stepping Stones, p. 86, this is probably Herman Bosboom, a student in Delft from Bussum.)
33 Volmer (sic), Joke (According to Joke Folmer, this is a reference to her with the Germans having misspelled her name.  According to Stepping Stones, p. 86, her full name is Johanna Maria ([“Joke,” “La petite”] Folmer.  She was arrested April 1944.)
34 v. Hilten, Bob (van Hilten, Bob of Alkmaar)
35 v. Lijnden. ML: May be Baron Van Lijnden.  Connected to the Victor Swane Line.
36 De Jong, Kees
37 Messner, Jaq.  Belgian.
38 Reichert, Sus (?).  Belgian. ML: May be Abbe Reichert.  Connected to the Franck-Deprez Line of Liege-Herstal.  Also connected to Group Blok and Maastrichts Group Symons/Sijmons.
39 Houtecesur, G., Belgian
40 Henri. Belgian.
41 Charles.  Belgian.
42 Daniels, Dr. Pollak
43 Drap, Joop
44 Westhoff, Rein
45 De Vries, Bob
46 Kramer, Dick. Belgian. (Wannee lists Martine Kramer of Utrecht; related?)
47 Mariette. Belgian. This is clearly Madeleine “Mariette,” Merjay.  In her helper file she lists the Bergmans, boulanger, at Bree, among her sources of airmen.
48 Charlotte. Belgian. (This almost certainly Charlotte Ambach.)
49 Bekkers, P. (Is this Felix Bekkers?, of Amsterdam?  It also could be a misspelling of “Bakkers.”)
50 Riezebos (C. Riezebos, of Breda)
51 Necker, F. ML:  Could this person be connected to Pastor Emmanuel de Neckere, known as ‘Lejeine’ of Moeskroense?
52 Arrested (color: yellow)
53 Parachuted Agents (color: blue)
54 Espionage (Intelligence) Network (color: red)
55 Escape Network for Airmen (color: green)


Report by Jan Wannee Regarding Members of Luctor et Emergo/Fiat Libertas  (From his Dutch Helper File at the US National Archives)

(An English-language translation appears following the Dutch version.)


Tot de personen, die in losser of vaster verband hebben medegewerkt aan Luctor, behooren de hieronder genoteerden.  Het is uiteraard niet mogelijk allen te noemen: velen hebben indirect medegewerkt, en het feit dat een aantal op deze lijst weggelaten worden, moet niet opg evat worden als een mindere appreciatie van hetgeen allen gedaan hebben; indien er belangstelling Uwerzijds is voor deze gevallen, zal schrijver dezes gaarne een aanvullende lijst insturen.

  • Mr. Kolff, burgemeester van Deil, voor bijzonderheden zie de texst.
  • Pater Kloeg, Rotterdam, werkte mede aan inlichtingen persoonsbewijzen, piloten, algemeene zaken.
  • Mr. Van Goelst Meyer, burgemeester van Rossum, inlichtingen, piloten, persoonsbewijzen, algemeene zaken.
  • Dr. Bannier, gecommitteerde voor Indische zaken, inlichtingen.
  • Nel Lind, Alkmaar, pilotenorganisatie, tevoren algemeene zaken.
  • C. Riezebos, Breda, persoonsbewijzen, algemeene zaken, inlichtingen.
  • A. van Couben Piccardt Wieringa, Voorburg, inlichtingen.
  • Mr. Bruinier, Den Haag, inlichtingen.
  • R. Dinger, Amsterdam, in concentratiekamp overleden, verzenden als correspondenti van de N.R.C. algemeen nieuws.
  • Kapitein De Geus, Wassenaar, militaire inlichtingen, persoonsbewijzen, boeken e.d.-
  • H. De Granada, Amsterdam, inlichtingen, persoonsbewijzen, algemeen zaken.
  • Ph. Bergmans, Bree (België), en zijn zoon, onderdak voor piloten en andere grensoverschrijders, couriersdiensten op Brussel.
  • Antoine Bergmans, Weert, passeur.
  • Matthieu Beelen, Tungelroy, passeur.
  • Gravendiek, Stamproy, passeursdiensten.
  • K. Smit, Baarle Nassau, grensovergang.
  • H. Van Tijn, Amsterdam, hulp bij vervalschingen, cliché’s, contact in Zwitserland.
  • Van Velzen, Amsterdam, drukker persoonsbewijzen.
  • Van Weeren, Amsterdam, assistentie drukken persoonsbewijzen, koeriersdiensten.
  • H. Bosboom, Bussum, geleide piloten, koeriersdiensten.
  • Mr. B. van Hilten, Alkmaar, idem.
  • B. Graafhuis, Amersfoort, idem en assistant Nel Lindt.
  • R. de Vries, Amsterdam, koeriersdiensten (o.a. twee keer naar Brussel), algemeene zaken.
  • G. Brants, Amsterdam, doodgeschoten, koeriersdiensten.
  • Gerda Oudgenoeg, Den Haag, algemeene zaken.
  • Felix Bekkers, Amsterdam, en zijn vrouw, algemeene zaken en koeriersdiensten.
  • Martine Kramer, Utrecht, koeriersdiensten.
  • Suzanne Reichert, Brussel, algemeene zaken, route Zwitserland.
  • Mme Emiel Vandervelde, Brussel, algemeene zaken, carte d’identité’s.
  • Van Goidsenhoven, Brussel, algemeene zaken, contact Zwitserland.
  • Eduard Veterman, Amsterdam, persoonsbewijzen en falsificaties.
  • Jet Roosenburg, Den Haag, koeriersdiensten en later voortzetting Fiat Libertas.

Van bovenstaande personen zijn Kolff, Kloege, Riezebos, Dinger en Brants overleden.  Over hun financiele positie kan ondergeteekende weinig inlichten.

Ten aanzien van Riezebos echter zou het in ieder geval wel zeer noodzakelijk zijn, dat, indien van Rijswege in het algemeen tegemoet gekomen wordt, zijn weduwe en beide kinderen hiervoor in aanmerking te laten komen.

Wat eventueele claims aangaat, verdient het aanbeveling zich met de betrokkenen zelf in verbinding te stellen.  Zoolang op dit punt geen maatstaven bekend zijn, kan ondergeteekende bezwaarlijk in dit rapport iets hierover opnemen.

Wel is de vraag gestelt, of bedragen, uitgegeven voor pogingen tot het invrijheid stellen van gevangen genomen, vergoed worden.  Zoo werd b.v. door de familie Bosboom destijds ƒ 50.000.+ betaald om hem vrij te koopen (zonder resultaat overigens).


Report by Jan Wannee Regarding Members of Luctor et Emergo/Fiat Libertas  (From his Dutch Helper File at the US National Archives)

The individuals listed below worked with Luctor to a larger or smaller extent. It is of course not possible to mention everyone; many of them worked indirectly and the fact that a number were omitted from this list must not be interpreted as a lesser degree of appreciation for what they have done; in case you are interested in more names, the author of this list is prepared to send you a supplemental list.

  • Mr. Kolff, mayor of Deil, see the text for further details.
  • Pater Kloeg, Rotterdam, worked in connection with intelligence, identity card, pilots and general matters.
  • Mr. Van Goelst Meyer, mayor of Rossum, intelligence, pilots, identity cards and general matters.
  • Dr. Bannier, Indonesian affairs, intelligence.
  • Nel Lindt (sic), Alkmaar, pilot organization, previously general matters.
  • C. Riezebos, Breda, identity cards, general matters, intelligence.
  • A. van Couben Piccardt Wieringa, Voorburg, intelligence.
  • Mr. Bruinier, The Hague, intelligence.
  • R. Dinger, Amsterdam, died in concentration camp, as correspondent with N.R.C. looked after general news.
  • Captain De Geus, Wassenaar, military intelligence, identity cards, books, etc.
  • H. De Granada, Amsterdam, intelligence, identity cards, general matters.
  • Ph. Bergmans, Bree (Belgium) and his son, shelter for pilots and other border crossers, courier service to Brussels.
  • Antoine Bergmans, Weert, passeur.
  • Matthieu Beelen, Tungelroy, passeur.
  • Gravendiek, Stamproy, passeur services.
  • K. Smit, Baarle Nassau, border crossing.
  • H. van Tijn, Amsterdam, assistance with falsification, printing, contact in Switzerland.
  • Van Velzen, Amsterdam, printer of identity cards.
  • Van Weeren, Amsterdam, assistance with printing identity cards, courier services.
  • H. Bosboom, Bussum, accompanied pilots, courier service.
  • Mr. B. van Hilten, Alkmaar, ditto.
  • B. Graafhuis, Amersfoort, ditto and assisting Nel Lindt (sic).
  • R. de Vries, Amsterdam, courier services (twice to Brussels), general matters.
  • G. Brants, Amsterdam, executed, courier services.
  • Gerda Oudgenoeg, The Hague, general matters.
  • Felix Bekkers, Amsterdam, and his wife, general matters and courier services.
  • Martine Kramer, Utrecht, courier services.
  • Suzanne Reichert, Brussels, general matters, route to Switzerland.
  • Madame Emiel Vandervelde, Brussels, general matters, identity cards.
  • Van Goidsenhoven, Brussels, general matters, contact Switzerland.
  • Eduard Veterman, Amsterdam, identity cards and falsifications.
  • Jet Roosenburg, The Hague, courier services, and later continuation of Fiat Libertas.

The following listed persons have died: Kolff, Kloeg, Riezebos, Dinger and Brants. The undersigned can say very little about their financial situation.

With respect to Riezebos it would quite necessary that if the Government makes funds available, his widow and children should be considered.

With respect to possible claims, it is recommended to communicate direct with the people involved. As nothing is known at the moment about a possible scale of compensation, the undersigned can not include anything on it in this report.

The question has arisen whether amounts spent in efforts to obtain release of prisoners can be reimbursed. As an example, the Bosboom family paid 50,000 guilders to try and obtain his release. (without any result).


7 responses to “Luctor et Emergo/Fiat Libertas

  1. Anouk ten Zijthoff | May 6, 2011 at 8:02 pm | Reply | Edit
    Dear Sir/Madam,

    I came across this website and it was unbelievable to see the information about Fiat Libertas/Luctor et Emergo. My grandfather was a part of it, Gerrit Jan ten Zijthoff (Hengelo), he was arrested and died in Neuengamme. For some years now I have been collecting information about him. Very interesting to see this website. I met someone from the resistance a couple of years ago, he remembered when my grandfather was arrested, he was there and so was a Jewish girl who was living with my grandparents and my father, she survived and she is a grandmother to me.

    Good work!

    Yours Truly,
    Anouk ten Zijthoff

  2. Reg ten Zijthoff

    I saw my mothers name on the list (nr.27 – Mrs.ten Zijthoff – Hengelo) but my father Gerrit-Jan ten Zijthoff – arrested in february 1944 , died one year later in Concentrationcamp Neuengamme – was actually part of the “Pilot Line” (Piloten Lijn) as it was called in Holland. My mother was also part of the resistance. But my father was a member of a large marxist reseistance group. As a chief-engineer at Stork Industries he also organised sabotage and workes together with other people at Stork. I was intrigued by the name PIET (no familyname was mentioned. I remember that my mother told me about a PIET, a student from Utrecht who was a courier for the resistance. In 1960, when I was a student at Utrecht University I was called by a history professor dr. Piet Hugenholtz who told me about my parents during the war. I wonder if it is the same man.

  3. Anouk ten Zijthoff

    My grandfather was arrested february 1942, I have to look up the exact date. My grandmother’s name is Antonia ten Zijthoff-Geelen.

  4. I had the honour of meeting and interviewing Joke Folmer in 2010 at a Flightpath of Friendship Reconciliation reunion (Ex RAF and Ex Luftwaffe WWII aircrew). What a truly remarkable lady she was and still is. Her recollections of deeds even whilst a prisoner are told with a matter of fact air (some one had to do it)
    A real hourour to talk with her.

  5. My father and uncle , Toine Bergmans and Fonds Bergmans both died aboit 30 years ago
    The daughter of Twan Bergmans
    Ineke Lutters

  6. joost rethmeier

    Dear all, My grand-uncle Han Jordaan, aka Han Roessingh and Harry Jeffers, was an SOE agent from Haaksbergen, Overijssel, who was parachuted into Holland (near Holten, OV) on 28/29March 1942 and he remained undetected till 3. May 1942, when he was betrayed and the SD arrested him. Han was the W/T Operator for three Sabotage groups, operating in Overijssel (Hengelo), Utrecht and Brabant. On 19 April 1942, while still at large he sent a message to London in which he asked London how to get 6 RAF men out of of Holland and back to the UK. The UK asked for their registration number and said they were on their own. These RAF men presumably were kept under cover somewhere near Hengelo (Almelo? Enschede? Haaksbergen? Oldenzaal? etc…). I know it’s a needle in a haystack but perhaps someone knows who these pilots may have been? They are not necesarily from the same bomber nor do we know whether they were all staying in the same hiding place. I only know that the family who housed the Overijssel sabotage team were the family of ir. G.J.Schott. he was the Head of Engineering at the NKS in Hengelo (The Nederlandse Katoenspinnerij) and his address was Oelerweg 118, Hengelo. Has anyone perhaps any clue for me as to who these RAF men may have been and who kept them in hiding? That early in the war there were not so many fugitive aircrew member roaming about and the pilot lines had not been organised the way they were from 1944 onwards…I assume that these pilots may have been captured by the Germans after a while and never made it to the UK until after the war…Thanks for thinking with me. Regards, Joost Rethmeier

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