Norway, Norwegian Ships, Navigation

The last leg of the evasion of Tom Applewhite was hidden in the propeller shaft compartment of a Norwegian ship, The Lisbeth, which sailed from Seville to Gibraltar carrying a cargo of bitter oranges destined for a marmalade producer in Liverpool.  The captain of  The Lisbeth was Einar Apeland of Haugesund, Norway.  A good source of information on the role of the Norwegian merchant fleet during WWII is to be found at:

1. Adamson, Hans Christian and Per Klem, Blood on the Midnight Sun, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1964.  (German occupation of Norway.)
2. Atkinson, Neill, Hell or High Water, New Zealand Merchant Seafarers Remember the War, Auckland, NZ: HarperCollinsPublishers, 2005.  (Pp. 222-231 are about Norwegian sailor and ships.)
3. Barker, Ralph, Blockade Busters, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1976.
Beamish, Derek, Harold Bennett, and John Hillier, Poole and World War II, Poole, England: Poole Historical Trust, 1980.  (Capt. Apeland rented a room in Poole during the war.)
4. Bennett, G. Harry and Roy, Survivors: British Merchant Seamen in the SecondWorld War, London: The Hambledon Press, 1999.
5. Bowditch, Nathaniel, American Practical Navigation, Washington, D.C.: Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Center, 1977, vol. 1.
6. Bjørkelund, Leif M. and E.H. Kongshavn, Våre Gamle Skip, Haugesund: Lokalhistorisk stiftelse, 1996.
7. Bristow, Desmond,  A Game of Moles, The Deceptions of an MI6 Officer, London: Little, Brown and Co. (UK), 1993.
8. Conway, Martin and Gotovitch, José (eds.), Europe in Exile, European Exile Communities in Britain 1940-1945, New York: Berghahn Books, 2001. (Contains chapters on Norwegians, Belgians, and Dutch in exile.)
9. Cooper, Capt. Dick, The Adventures of a Secret Agent, London: Frederick Muller, Ltd., 1957.  (Has references  to a Seville-Gibraltar escape.)
10. Course, A.G., The Deep Sea Tramp, London: Hollis & Carter, no date (1959 or later).
11. Edwards, Bernard, The Merchant Navy Goes to War, London: Robert Hale, 1989.
12. Gjelsvik, Tore, Norwegian Resistance, 1940-1945, London: C. Hurst & Co., 1979.
13. Halstead, Ivor, Heroes of the Atlantic, London: Lindsay Drummond, 1941.
Hegland, Jon Rustung, Nortraships Flate (vols. I and II), Oslo: Dreyers Forlag, 1976.
14. Helmersen, Hanna Aasvik, War and Innocence, a Young Girl’s Life in Occupied Norway (1940-1945), Seattle: Hara Publishing, 2000.
15. Howarth, David, The Shetland Bus, New York: The Lyons Press, 2001.
16. Howarth, David, We Die Alone, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955.
17. Hurd, Sir Archibald, Britain’s Merchant Navy, London: Odhams Press Ltd., n.d. (probably 1942 or 1943).
18. Jordan, Roger W., The World’s Merchant Fleets 1939, the Particulars and Wartime Fates of 6,000 Ships, Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1999.
19. Kramish, Arnold, The Griffin, the Greatest Untold Espionage Story of World War II, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
20. Kurzmann, Dan, Blood and Water, Sabotaging Hitler’s Bomb, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.
21. Latham, Robert F., Introduction to Marine Engineering, Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute, 1958.
22. Lehmkuhl, Dik., Journey to London, The Story of the Norwegian Government at War, London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1946.
23. Lindbaek, Lise (trans. by Nora Solum), Norway’s New Saga of the Sea, the Story of Her Merchant Marine, New York: Exposition Press, 1969.
Littlejohn, David, The Patriotic Traitors, the History of Collaboration in German-Occupied Europe, 1940-45, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1972.
24. Myklebost, Tor, They Came as Friends, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1943.
25. Osborne, Brian D., and Ronald Armstrong, Glasgow, A City at War, Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2005.
26. Osborne, Brian D. and Ronald Armstrong, The Clyde at War, Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2005.
27. Petersen, Kaare, The Saga of Norwegian Shipping, Oslo: Dreyers Forlag, 1955.  (Contains material on Nortraship, the Norwegian agency in charge of Norwegian shipping during WWII.)
28. Petrow, Richard, The Bitter Years, the Invasion and Occupation of Denmark and Norway, April 1940-May 1945, New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 1979.
29. Rings, Werner, Life with the Enemy, Collaboration and Resistance in Hitler’s Europe 1939-1945, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1982.
Salmon, Patrick (ed.), Britain and Norway in the Second World War, London: HMSO, 1995.
30. Sømme, Sven, Another Man’s Shoes, Clifton-upon-Teme, Worcestershire, U.K.: Polperro Heritage Press, 2005.
31. Spiller, H.J., Ticket to Freedom, Wellingborough, England: William Kimber, 1988.  (Contains material on an escape via Seville.)
32. Wachsman, Z.H., Trail Blazers for Invasion, NY: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1943.

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